C++ cstdlib header library


The C++ <ctsdlib> header file is similar to the C <stdlib.h> header file.This file includes several macros and functions which is made available to the user for their varied and wide practical uses.This header is same as the C <stdlib.h> header file.

The list of all the macros and functions included under the <cstdlib> header file is given below.To use the macro or the function include ‘<cstdlib>‘ in your program.

Types

There are only five types found in the header file.

size_t

wchar_t

This type is same as unsigned int type
A wide character type type
div_tA structure of the type return by ‘div’ function.
ldiv_tA structure of the type return by ‘ldiv’.
lldiv_t(C++11)A structure of the type return by ‘lldiv function’

Link : wchar_t type

Macros

NULLThe value 0.
EXIT_FAILURE1
EXIT_SUCCESS0
RAND_MAXMaximum integer value returned by ‘rand’ function.
MB_CUR_MAXMaximum number of bytes in multi-byte character in the current locale and never greater than MB_LEN_MAX.

FUNCTIONS

Return
type
Function name and
argument
Function definition

Numeric conversion
doubleatof(const char*)Converts string to double type.
int
long int
long long
atoi(const char*)
atol(const char*)
atoll(const char*)
Converts string to int ,long int and long long.
double
float
long double
strtod(const char *,char **)
strtof(const char *,char **)
strtold(const char *,char **)
Converts string to double,float and long double
long int
long long int
unsigned long int
unsigned long long
strtol(const char *,char **,int)
strtoll(const char *,char **,int)
strtoul(const char *,char **,int)
strtoull(const char *,char **,int)
Converts string to long int,longlong,unsigned long ,unsigned long long

Pseudo-random sequence
generation
intrand(void)Generate random number
voidsrand(unsigned int)Uses seed to generate random number

Memory management
void *calloc(size_t , size_t)Allocate memory
voidfree(void *)Frees the memory using the pointer passed
void *malloc(size_t)Allocate memory of size passed as argument
void *realloc(void *, size_t)Deallocate old memory and return a pointer to new memory

Communication with
the environment
voidabort(void)Terminate program
intatexit(void (*)(void))registers the function pointed by the argument
intat_quick_exit(void (*f)(void)) (C++11)register the function pointed to by the argument
voidexit(int )Terminate the program
void_Exit(int status)(C++11)Terminate the program
char * getenv(const char *)searches an environment list
voidquick_exit(int)(C++11)Functions registered by calls to at_quick_exit are called in the reverse order
intsystem(const char *)Determines whether the environment has a command processor

Searching sorting
utilities
void *bsearch(const void *, const void *,size_t , size_t , int (*)(const void *, const void *) )Searches an array
voidqsort(void *, size_t , size_t , int (*)(const void *, const void *))Sorts an array

Integer arithmetic
int
long int
long long int
abs(int)
labs(long int)
llabs(long long int)
(C++11)
Compute absolute value of the argument
div_t
ldiv_t
lldiv_t
div(int , int)
ldiv(long int, long int)
lldiv(long long int numer, long long int denom)
(C++11)
compute the quotient and remainder

wide/multibyte
character conversion
intmblen(const char *s, size_t n)Determines the number of bytes contained in the multibyte character
intmbtowc(wchar_t * restrict ,const char * restrict , size_t )inspects bytes to determine the number of bytes needed to complete the next multibyte character
intwctomb(char *, wchar_t )Determines the number of bytes needed to represent the multibyte character of the wide character

Multibyte/wide
string conversion
size_tmbstowcs(wchar_t * restrict, const char * restrict , size_t) converts a sequence of multibyte characters into a sequence of corresponding wide characters
size_twcstombs(char * restrict ,const wchar_t * restrict , size_t)converts a sequence of wide characters into a sequence of multibyte characters